Three types of risks threaten the operation of the ONP: social, geodynamic and technical.
The causes of social risks are the so-called criminal acts, which consist of cuts to the pipeline and connections to steal (it would be lacking precision). This risk occurs both in the 854 kilometers of the main section of the ONP and in the 252 kilometers of the ORN.
Geodynamic risks have three possible causes. One of them is the instability of the ground (landslides) which has the effect of applying stress to the pipe. Another is rock displacement, which produces compression in the pipe. These two risks have a greater incidence in Section II of the ONP, that is, between Station 5 and Bayóvar Terminal. Finally, the hydraulic action of the rivers (erosion) leads to an increase in the exposure of the pipeline and, therefore, there is a loss of its coating.
As for the technical risks, which threaten each section of the ONP, they are due to the aggressiveness of the terrain, which produces external corrosion, as well as anaerobic bacteria in the crude water, which generates internal corrosion of the pipe.
As soon as the alarm occurs after the detection of the contingent event, the containment and recovery of the oil is prioritized. These first actions consider the control of the leak and the installation of different containment barriers to prevent the advance of the spill, such as artisanal barriers, river booms, oleophilic barriers and geomembrane barriers. These immediate actions include the removal of vegetation impregnated with hydrocarbons, as well as the construction of dikes and containment points. As mentioned, from the execution of these first actions, we interact with the population surrounding the contingency, in order to keep them informed of our actions and address their concerns about the event.
Likewise, several preliminary activities are carried out to the remediation process: the conditioning of access roads and camp, the installation of camps, complementary services and components, and the topographic survey.
The conditioning of access roads and camp consists of the provision of areas to allow the safe installation of the place of permanence. For this, the clearing of shrubs and minor vegetation is carried out, the implementation of trails, stabilization of some reliefs, and the placement of handmade railings to reduce the risks of falling.
Theinstallation of camps, services and complementary components basically focuses on the placement of tents on raised wooden platforms, in order to minimize the impacts on the site area, reduce the alteration of the landscape and avoid flood risks.
The topographic survey has the purpose of defining the location vertices of the areas to be intervened.
Another relevant aspect among immediate actions, but in another field of work, is the initial field evaluation of the reported event. These include taking samples, identifying the probable cause of the event, and sketching a map of the impacted area.
Based on the above, we proceed to the selection of remediation techniques. For this, certain criteria must be met for the selection of the most appropriate methodology. These include the suitability of the land for the development of in situ treatments, the weather conditions and the availability of water. Likewise, the pressures or possible conflicts with the surrounding communities, the expectations of sources of work for the community members, the logistics costs and the exposure to risks. Finally, the proximity to plants or waste treatment or disposal facilities, among other aspects.
Specialists on the subject havemade a classification of the different remediation techniques, taking into account the following criteria for each type of pollutant: cost-efficiency, duration and risk reduction, as shown in the table:
|Cost / efficiency
|Total petroleum hydrocarbons
In situ soil washing
| Ex situsoil washing
| In situsoil washing
Ex situ soil washing
|Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene
| On-sitesoil washing
|In situ soil washing
In situ soil washing
and ex situ soil washing
According to the analysis of different remediation technologies, the ONP mainly uses the following techniques: bioremediation / biostimulation, washing and bioremediation of solids, and removal and disposal of contaminated material.
The remediation itself begins with the collection and removal of the affected material.
Selective removal of affected soil and vegetation is carried out using manual tools, such as shovels, picks and machetes, following a working direction from the outside to the inside, in order to minimize cross contamination resulting from the cleaning and remediation activities. .
These activities also include the recovery of oil from water bodies through the use of absorbent material or skimmer-type equipment.
All the bags generated as a result of this activity are transferred to a temporary warehouse, while the recovered oil is taken to storage tanks or ponds, for its subsequent reinjection or final disposal.
Regarding soil washing, containment dikes are built with bags and screens with raschel mesh are installed to retain free product, crusts and material impregnated with crude oil from hydro-washing.
Once the first intervention phase has been completed, the soil that was subjected to the hydro-washing is evacuated and mobilized to the treatment cell for the biostimulation process.
Biostimulation requires the construction of treatment cells close to the intervention area. The cell is waterproofed with a high resistance geomembrane.
The material being treated must be homogenized, using machinery.
Fumigation pumps or a pressure pump are used to spray water superficially on the material being treated until the required degree of humidity is achieved (between 20% and 30%).
At the same time, the soil texture is improved by adding conditioning materials (for example, absorbent HTP, oclansorb, etc.), in proportions of 15% to 20% (v/v).
To stimulate microbial activity, different products or amendments are applied.
Once a correct balance of nutrients has been reached in the soil under treatment, an intensive oxygenation process is carried out.
Oxygenation is applied at least once a week. Simultaneously, the relative humidity and pH of the soil under treatment are controlled.
Samples are carried out to know concentrations of TPH and thus design the mixture of nutrients required for the continuation of the process.
The hazardous material generated is collected in a temporary hazardous waste warehouse, specially conditioned to the geographical location and the types of remains to be handled.
The bags and cylinders collected in the main waste warehouse are transferred by manual or mechanical loading to the interior of the transport units.
Hazardous solid waste is finally transferred to an authorized secure landfill, where it is properly disposed of.
It consists of taking periodic samples (monthly, quarterly, semi-annually) and physicochemical analysis of industrial effluents, seawater, groundwater, air, emissions, noise and soil. The purpose of the Pipeline is to ensure or measure the effectiveness of environmental actions or performance (environmental control).
The objective of remediation activities is to verify their effectiveness. Subsequently, the Environmental Assessment and Enforcement Agency (OEFA) performs the corresponding assessments.
For remediation activities, the remedial company will be in charge of transferring the equipment and professionals to the area of operation. During your activities, you should monitor water, soil, and sediment, as appropriate. Before carrying out the activities, an initial monitoring is carried out and the extent and depth of the impact is determined. At the end of its activities, it conducts verification monitoring to evaluate the effectiveness of the actions.
The Company, complying with its Social Management Policy, must direct and manage the processes of social responsibility and community relations, through social impact interventions and relationship actions, aimed at promoting the sustainable development of our stakeholders, contributing to the social viability of our operations.
PETROPERÚ has established various mechanisms that contribute to a better performance as established in our Social Management Policy and the standards that we have assumed as a Company (IFC Performance Standards). We describe these mechanisms below:
PETROPERÚ is committed to promoting local employment in all its operations. In the case of ONP, the Company has established a policy that the hiring of non-qualified personnel must be 100% local; that is, of the community or locality where the service will be carried out, also being temporary and rotating contracts in order to benefit the largest number of residents. In addition, preference is given to hiring qualified local personnel, as long as they meet the profile required for the position. The latter is not always possible, for example, in operational and remediation work, which requires professional personnel with experience and very specific training.
On the other hand, in relation to the attention to contingencies, it is important to mention that PETROPERÚ carries out various actions in response to the unexpected events that have been occurring in the North Peruvian Pipeline, such as spills. Given this, we made an approach to the authorities of the populations linked to or close to the event that occurred, with which we coordinated the holding of community assemblies to explain what happened and indicate the actions that are going to be carried out for the containment, cleaning and remediation, the Company’s policy regarding the hiring of local labor, the respective investigations to determine the causes of the event and the communications to the competent State institutions.
During the attention of the event, the following actions are carried out:
CR will carry out the formal communication of the occurrence of the accident to the towns surrounding the area of the event, as well as carry out the corresponding additional coordination.